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雅思高分作文进阶指导:同义替换,你真的学会了吗?

2018年03月08日11:43 来源:小站整理
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摘要:熟悉雅思的同学对同义替换一定不陌生。在雅思写作中的同义替换可以反映出一个考生对词汇掌握的广度和灵活度。但这绝不意味着要刻意使用偏词难词,而是灵活。下文中将对雅思写作中同义替换进行详细指导。

本文为大家带来雅思高分作文的进阶指导——同义替换。别小看同义替换,雅思作文中用得好,也是雅思作文的一大亮点,是加分项哦。很多考过雅思的同学比较熟悉的是关于动词和形容词的替换。比如说,表达“重要的”,可以把 important 换成 significant, crucial, essential….; 表达“ 增加,增长”,可以把 increase 换成 enhance, boost….; 表达“ 解决”, 可以把 solve 换成 address,deal with, cope with等等。所有这些关于形容词和动词的替换,是比较简单和基础的一部分。

雅思高分作文进阶指导:同义替换,你真的学会了吗?图1

别小看同义替换,看似简单实则核心的关键,常常容易被大家忽视:

我们一起来看以下几个句子,它们摘自小编前几天阅读的一篇《经济学人》文章:公司是否应该实行工资透明化/工资透明化的利与弊。第一遍阅读的时候重点关注黑体标注的短语,看看有什么发现。

1.Firms should make more information about salaries public.

2. Pay transparency can be a potent weapon against persistent inequities.

3. Donald Trump recently canceled a rule set by Barack Obama requiring large firms to provide more pay data to anti-discrimination regulators.

4. Despite the discomfort that transparency can cause, it would be better to publish more information.

5. There is a straightforward economic argument formaking pay public.

6 Public pay data should help people make better decisions about which skills to acquire and where to work.

7 Shining a light on pay gaps can poison morale, as some workers learn that they earn substantially less than their peers.

8 A study of employees at the University of California, for instance, found that when workers were given access to a database listing the salary of every public employee, job satisfaction among those on relatively low wages fell.

9 But increased openness about pay could improve both the fairness and the functioning of the economy.

10 When pay is public, it is not the justifiable inequities that create the most discomfort, but those firms cannot defend.

大家有没有注意到,所有黑体标注出来的短语,其实表达的是一个意思,就是这篇文章的主题词:工资透明化。用词也非常简单,除了 transparency 之外,所有的词汇和短语,都是属于中学英语的范围之内。但是,作者的表达方式又都不一样。这就是,用词灵活的终极体现,也是我们常说的雅思写作中的同义替换真正想要考察的东西。同样的话题如果让一般的同学来写,只怕通篇只会用一个短语(eg. make pay public),很大可能还是从题目抄来的 ,然后在整片文章中反复用,反复用......这一点恐怕练习过雅思雅思写作的同学都有类似的感觉:一篇雅思作文写完,感觉自己好像用了无数次某个表达(一般就是表达文章的主题名词或名词性短语),但是也想不出其他的替换表达了。

这,才是雅思写作中词汇和表达提升最容易被忽视却又最关键的地方,也是最能看出一个考生雅思写作实力的部分。甚至是在分析雅思写作范文的过程中,我们也倾向于去关注一些形容词和动词的同义替换,而忽略了名词的灵活表达。

为什么名词替换的难度高于形容词和动词呢?

因为名词都是针对特定的文章主题的,适用范围狭窄。而一些常用的形容词和动词可以适用于从教育,科技,环境到犯罪,社会等等各个话题。很多同学投机取巧背的那些 “模版”,不过是一些常用的或者是怪异高端的动词和形容词的堆砌而已。无论多么什么样的雅思写作模版,和雅思写作技巧,都无法让你在在灵活使用名词这一点上糊弄考官。这是雅思写作中无法作假的部分,所以也是考官会更关注的地方。

接下来我们再来看另一篇《经济学人》文章,这是小编今天刚刚阅读的,内容主要涉及电商(网络购物等)对传统实体经济的影响和冲击,也是雅思会涉及的话题之一。同样,第一遍阅读只需关注黑体名词即可:

1.But the deal showed the risks for producers of all kinds asonline platforms gain strength.

2. The old system suited many businesses.

3. Clothing manufacturers followed a predictable calendar for when goods would be produced and distributed.

4. Giant makers of household products and food had to deal with stingy retailers such as Walmart, but they could also swat away smaller competitors with spending on expensive television ads.

5.Companies that sell dresses and shoes to conventional retailers like Macy’s find them in turmoil, threatened both byonline sellers and by nimbler bricks-and-mortar ones such as Zara.

6 For larger producers of packaged consumer goods, the rise ofe-commerce compounds problems created by customers’ increased interest in healthier, more “natural” products.

7 Thanks to online reviews and blogs, shoppers no longer have to rely on big brands.

8 It is the mediocre brands that will fade away as both smaller competitors and giant ones flourish.

9. Alibaba and JD make it easier for big firms to reach China’s smaller cities, which are expected to provide more than 70% of new online shoppers by 2020.

10 E-commerce is also changing how manufacturers advertise their goods.

11 Companies have long used cookies to follow consumers around the web

12 Meanwhile, all producers will continue to worry about big online platforms amassing too much power.

13 In future, many makers the world over are likely to pursue a three-part strategy, distributing on sites such as Amazon, in stores and through their own channels.

这一篇名词的同义替换更是多的目不暇接,关于表达“公司,企业”,你还是只会用 company 或者 firm 吗?看看这篇文章用了哪些名词:producer,business, manufacturer, maker, seller, shopper, retailer, brands…这些词是难词吗?好像很多都是高中词汇后面加了er而已啊. 但我们大部分同学甚至是老师,都无法写出这种风格的文章。

总之,关于名词的替换,既简单又困难,但有心的雅思考生一定知道,备考雅思写作一定要注意平时的积累,从外文刊物中不断地去挖掘地道的词汇和表达,雅思高分作文并不是一天练就的,再多的考试技巧也只是在技巧层面帮助你提分,但更关键的还是在于平时下的功夫。

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