网站导航     在线客服  
小站教育
2019雅思真题
学生选择在小站备考:30天 526328名,今日申请3911人    备考咨询 >>

【小站出品】雅思阅读机经真题解析-Coral reefs

2016年08月30日17:26 来源:小站整理作者:小站雅思编辑
参与(2) 阅读(13868)

雅思备考资料免费领取

免费领取
摘要:小站雅思名师讲堂从今天开始和大家分享一系列雅思阅读机经真题,是烤鸭在剑桥雅思之余的良好调剂品。烤鸭们可以先自己试着做一做,做完之后可以对下答案,再看看小站名师的悉心讲解。本篇阅读的标题:珊瑚礁。

小站独家,雅思阅读机经真题解析。一切患有雅思阅读刷题强迫症的烤鸭,请看这里。小站精心整理了一批雅思阅读机经真题。如果你的剑桥雅思阅读已是烂熟于心,那么这一系列的雅思阅读机经真题真的很适合你,搭配上绝对原创的讲解,还有全文的中文翻译,这等阅读大餐,还等什么!

【小站出品】雅思阅读机经真题解析-Coral reefs图1

Coral reefs are underwater structures made from calcium carbonate secreted by corals. Coral reefs are colonies of tiny living animals found in marine waters that contain few nutrients. Most coral reefs are built from stony corals, which in turn consist of polyps that cluster in groups.

Coral reefs

A Coral reefs are estimated to cover 284,300 km2 just under 0.1% of the oceans' surface area, about half the area of France. The Indo-Pacific region accounts for 91.9% of this total area.Southeast Asia accounts for 32.3% of that figure, while the Pacific including Australia accounts for 40.8%. Atlantic and Caribbean coral reefs account for 7.6%. Yet often called “rainforests of the sea", coral reefs form some of the most diverse ecosystems on Earth. They provide a home for 25% of all marine species, including fish, mollusks (软体动物), worms, crustaceans(甲壳类动物), echinoderms(棘皮动物),sponges, tunicates and other cnidarians. Paradoxically, coral reefs flourish even though they are surrounded by ocean waters that provide few nutrients. They are most commonly found at shallow depths in tropical waters, but deep water and cold water corals also exist on smaller scales in other areas. Although corals exist both in temperate and tropical waters, shallow-water reefs form only in a zone extending from 30° N to 30° S of the equator. Deep water coral can exist at greater depths and colder temperatures at much higher latitudes, as far north as Norway. Coral reefs are rare along the American and African west coasts. This is due primarily to upwelling and strong cold coastal currents that reduce water temperatures in these areas (respectively the Peru, Benguela and Canary streams). Corals are seldom found along the coastline of South Asia from the eastern tip of India (Madras) to the Bangladesh(孟加拉国)and Myanmar borders. They are also rare along the coast around northeastern South America and Bangladesh due to the freshwater release from the Amazon and Ganges Rivers(恒河), respectively.

B Coral reefs deliver ecosystem services to tourism, fisheries and coastline protection. The global economic value of coral reefs has been estimated at as much as $US375 billion per year. Coral reefs protect shorelines by absorbing wave energy(潮汐能), and many small islands would not exist without their reef to protect them.

C The value of reefs in biodiverse (生物多样的) regions can be even higher. In parts of Indonesia and the Caribbean where tourism is the main use, reefs are estimated to be worth US$1 million per square kilometer, based on the cost of maintaining sandy beaches and the value of attracting snorkelers (浮潜者)and scuba divers (水肺潜水). Meanwhile, a recent study of the Great Barrier Reef in Australia found that the reef is worth more to the country as an intact ecosystem than an extractive reserve for fishing. Each year more than 1.8 million tourists visit the reef, spending an estimated AU$4.3 billion (Australian dollars) on reef-related industries from diving to boat rental to posh island resort stays. In the Caribbean, says UNEP, the net annual benefits from diver tourism was US$2 billion in 2000 with US$625 million spent directly on diving on reefs. Further, reef tourism is important source of employment, especially for some of the world's poorest people. UNEP says that of the estimated 30 million small-scale fishers in the developing world, most are dependent to a greater or lesser extent on coral reefs. In the Philippines, for example, more than one million small-scale fishers depend directly on coral reefs for their livelihoods. The report estimates that reef fisheries (渔场) were worth between $15,000 and $150,000 per square kilometer a year, while fish caught for aquariums (水族馆) were worth $500 a kilogram against $6 for fish caught as food. The aquarium fish export industry supports around 50,000 people and generates some US$5.5 million a year in Sri Lanka along.

D Unfortunately, coral reefs are dying around the world. In particular, coral mining, agricultural and urban runoff(入水), pollution (organic and inorganic), disease, and the digging of canals and access into islands and bays are localized threats to coral ecosystems(生态系统). Broader threats are sea temperature rise, sea level rise and pH changes from ocean acidification (酸化) , all associated with greenhouse gas emissions. Some current fishing practices are destructive and unsustainable. These include cyanide fishing, overfishing and blast fishing. Although cyanide (氰化物毒)fishing supplies live reef fish for the tropical aquarium market, most fish caught using this method are sold in restaurants, primarily in Asia, where live fish are prized for their freshness. To catch fish with cyanide, fishers dive down to the reef and squirt cyanide in coral crevices and on the fast-moving fish, to stun the fish making them easy to catch. Overfishing is another leading cause for coral reef degradation. Often, too many fish are taken from one reef to sustain a population in that area. Poor fishing practices, such as banging on the reef with sticks (muro-ami), destroy coral formations that normally function as fish habitat. In some instances, people fish with explosives (爆炸物) (blast fishing), which blast apart the surrounding coral.

E Tourist resorts that empty their sewage directly into the water surrounding coral reefs contribute to coral reef degradation. Wastes kept in poorly maintained septic tanks can also leak into surrounding ground water, eventually seeping out to the reefs. Careless boating, diving, snorkeling and fishing can also damage coral reefs. Whenever people grab, kick, and walk on, or stir up sediment (沉淀物) in the reefs, they contribute to coral reef destruction. Corals are also harmed or killed when people drop anchors on them or when people collect coral.

F To find answers for these problems, scientists and researchers study the various factors that impact reefs. The list includes the ocean's role as a carbon dioxide sink, atmospheric changes, ultraviolet light (紫外线光) , ocean acidification, viruses, impacts of dust storms carrying agents to far flung reefs, pollutants, algal blooms and others. Reefs are threatened well beyond coastal areas. General estimates show approximately 10% of the world’s coral reefs are dead. About 60% of the world's reefs are at risk due to destructive, human-related activities. The threat to the health of reefs is particularly strong in Southeast Asia, where 80% of reefs are endangered.

G In Australia, the Great Barrier Reef(大堡礁) is protected by the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, and is the subject of much legislation, including a biodiversity action plan. Inhabitants of Ahus Island, Manus Province, Papua New Guinea, have followed a generations-old practice of restricting fishing in six areas of their reef lagoon(环礁湖). Their cultural traditions allow line fishing, but not net or spear fishing. The result is both the biomass and individual fish sizes are significantly larger than in places where fishing is unrestricted.

Questions 14-19

Reading Passage 1 has seven paragraphs A-G.

Which paragraph contains the following information?

Write the correct letter A-G, in boxes 14-19 on your answer sheet.

NB You may use any letter more than once.

14 Geographical location of world’s coral reef

15 How does coral reef benefit economy locally

16 The statistics of coral reefs economic significance

17 The listed reasons for declining number of coral reef

18 Physical approach to coral reef by people

19 Unsustainable fishing methods are applied in regions of the world

Questions 20-25

Do the following statement agree with the information given in Reading Passage 2?

TRUE if the statement is true

FALSE if the statement is false

NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage

20 Coral reefs provide habitat to variety of marine life.

21 Coral reef distribute around the ocean disproportionally.

22 Coral reef is increasingly important for scientific purpose.

23 Coral reefs are greatly exchanged among and exported to other counties.

24 Reef tourism is of economic essence generally for some poor people.

25 As with other fishing business, coral fishery is not suitable to women and

children

Questions 26

Choose the correct letter. A, B, C or D.

Write your answers in boxes 26 on your answer sheet.

What is the main purpose of the this passage

A Demonstrate how coral reef grow in the ocean

B To tell that coral reef is widely used as a scientific project

C Present the general benefits and an alarming situation of coral reef

D To show the vital efforts made to protect coral reef in Australia

特别申明:本文来自于小站教育【雅思资料】专栏,转载请以超链接形式标注本文出处,并附上此申明,否则将追究法律责任。

相关文章

【7分必看】告诉你雅思7分是什么水平 雅思7分难考吗 雅思OG听力使用指南 你有没有用错OG? 雅思OG怎么用?了解用法备考少走弯路 你的雅思写作口语提分最佳伴侣 雅思考官观点语料库

专题推荐

  • 雅思模考软件下载

    小站雅思模考软件免费下载!真实再现机考内容和流程,沉着应对雅思机考化!备考冲刺期一日一套,有效应对机考模式。左题右答高度还原机考界面,并且全面记录模考成绩,了解分数趋势,有助更好得找到自身薄弱点进行针对性训练。

  • 雅思黄金备考资料在线打包下载

    雅思全套通关备考资料在线打包下载!包括小站最新雅思机经,历届真题解析,听说读写必备黄金资料,还有!炙手可热的小站雅思模考软件!这等好事!晚到就没有咯~

  • 4大雅思考试注意事项

    对于许多首站雅思的新手来说,很可能不清楚雅思考试的注意事项,导致考试时遇到突发情况不知如何处理,甚至违反了考场规则。作为留学考试的正义使者,小站当然不允许这类事情发生在同学们身上!所以,特意为大家献上本专题,告诉大家雅思考试的注意事项,还望大家牢记于心,做个好宝宝~

  • 2019雅思考试时间正式出炉

    【小站雅思专题】本专题包含2019年雅思考试时间,雅思机经订阅,雅思高分备考必看资料、雅思考前模拟软件等内容。

  • 搞定雅思听说读写这些资料必备

    本专题包含雅思考试8分大神推荐雅思听力备考资料、雅思口语备考资料、雅思阅读备考资料、雅思写作备考资料下载等内容。

  • 10天突破雅思写作

    十天突破雅思写作专题助您打开思路突破写作瓶颈、攻克词汇难关,巧用前进式倒退式和中间式以及写作开头结尾技巧。

  • 雅思托福终极大PK

    每到出国留学季,就有数不清的考生来咨询,不知道自己应该考托福还是雅思。“出国留学我该考什么”简直成了“to be or not to be”的问题。其实这个问题并没有那么复杂。本专题便详细解析了雅思和托福的各项差异,大家学习后一定能够更加清楚自己该选择哪个考试。

  • 详解英语和美语的区别

    Sherlock VS Sheldon?你爱哪一个?使用方式和文化背景来讲,美音悠然,英音凛然,各有千秋。所谓口音来划分社会阶层的固有印象早已落伍,但在英音美音的各自拥趸心中,他们誓要讲对方才在身下,而对宽容一派,反倒希望两种语音尽收囊中,最好是拥有口音自由切换之神功。

未输入验证码
未输入验证码
未输入验证码
获取验证码
免费领取

你可能需要的资料

小站教育雅思官方群

群号:664063828

「扫二维码 加入群聊」
加入
雅思关键词
版权申明| 隐私保护| 意见反馈| 联系我们| 关于我们| 网站地图| 最新资讯
© 2011-2019 ZHAN.com All Rights Reserved. 沪ICP备15003744号-3
沪公网安备 31010602002658号