- 2018年04月28日11:17 来源：小站整理
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2018年4月26日场的雅思考试已经结束，为大家带来本场雅思考试真题回忆。本场雅思大作文题目为教育类话题，原题为：In some countries, many people choose to educate their children at home by themselves instead of sending them to school. Do you think the advantages outweigh the disadvantages?请看真题回忆详情：
1.reference number: CWX576884
2.when did the woman claim last time:9 months ago
3.postcode: GO19 4KE
4.120, middle street, oxford
5.the floor which is made of wood was wet
6.because of the water
7.it was out of control and she switched off immediately
8.contact the client engineer to come and check the problem
9.the client inspector could come on Tuesday next week
10.the woman's house is opposite to the post office
11.according to Davina, a typical mentor is someone who: A has lived long in this day
12.Davina says that a mentor could be able to: B suggest best places to shop
13.what other thing does this city offer: A leaflets in foreign language
14.what could people do, if they continue to feel lonely: C take advantage of the informal Thursday evening
15.what advice does Davina offer about fitting into a new life: C accept that thing take time to settle down
31.Maoris actually don't have record on language which is written
32.it indicates a lifestyle
33.used latest technology on research
34.it was hit by a bad storm
35.making a shoot gallery
36.the research opportunity was limited
37.ship instead of a gun
38.a historical map of wreck was found
39.pepole came to these place for the cargo of gold
40.a lot of treasure such as jewerly and coins
passage 3：语言的消失（来自剑桥雅思4 Test2）
Lost for words
Many minority languages are on the danger list
In the Native American Navajo nation, which sprawls across four states in the American south-west, the native language is dying. Most of its speakers are middle-aged or elderly. Although many students take classes in Navajo, the schools are run in English. Street signs, supermarket goods and even their own newspaper are all in English. Not surprisingly, linguists doubt that any native speakers of Navajo will remain in a hundred years’ time.
Navajo is far from alone. Half the world’s 6,800 languages are likely to vanish within two generations — that’s one language lost every ten days. Never before has the planet’s linguistic diversity shrunk at such a pace. ‘At the moment, we are heading for about three or four languages dominating the world,’ says Mark Pagel, an evolutionary biologist at the University of Reading. ‘It’s a mass extinction, and whether we will ever rebound from the loss is difficult to know.’
Isolation breeds linguistic diversity: as a result, the world is peppered with languages spoken by only a few people. Only 250 languages have more than a million speakers, and at least 3,000 have fewer than 2,500. It is not necessarily these small languages that are about to disappear. Navajo is considered endangered despite having 150,000 speakers. What makes a language endangered is not just the number of speakers, but how old they are. If it is spoken by children it is relatively safe. The critically endangered languages are those that are only spoken by the elderly, according to Michael Krauss, director of the Alassk Native Language Center, in Fairbanks.
Why do people reject the language of their parents? It begins with a crisis of confidence, when a small community finds itself alongside a larger, wealthier society, says Nicholas Ostler, of Britain’s Foundation for Endangered Languages, in Bath. ‘People lose faith in their culture,’ he says. ‘When the next generation reaches their teens, they might not want to be induced into the old traditions.’
The change is not always voluntary. Quite often, governments try to kill off a minority language by banning its use in public or discouraging its use in schools, all to promote national unity. The former US policy of running Indian reservation schools in English, for example, effectively put languages such as Navajo on the danger list. But Salikoko Mufwene, who chairs the Linguistics department at the University of Chicago, argues that the deadliest weapon is not government policy but economic globalisation. ‘Native Americans have not lost pride in their language, but they have had to adapt to socio-economic pressures,’ he says. ‘They cannot refuse to speak English if most commercial activity is in English.’ But are languages worth saving? At the very least, there is a loss of data for the study of languages and their evolution, which relies on comparisons between languages, both living and dead. When an unwritten and unrecorded language disappears, it is lost to science.
Language is also intimately bound up with culture, so it may be difficult to preserve one without the other. ‘If a person shifts from Navajo to English, they lose something,’ Mufwene says. ‘Moreover, the loss of diversity may also deprive us of different ways of looking at the world,’ says Pagel. There is mounting evidence that learning a language produces physiological changes in the brain. ‘Your brain and mine are different from the brain of someone who speaks French, for instance,’ Pagel says, and this could affect our thoughts and perceptions. ‘The patterns and connections we make among various concepts may be structured by the linguistic habits of our community.’
So despite linguists’ best efforts, many languages will disappear over the next century. But a growing interest in cultural identity may prevent the direst predictions from coming true. ‘The key to fostering diversity is for people to learn their ancestral tongue, as well as the dominant language,’ says Doug Whalen, founder and president of the Endangered Language Fund in New Haven, Connecticut. ‘Most of these languages will not survive without a large degree of bilingualism,’ he says. In New Zealand, classes for children have slowed the erosion of Maori and rekindled interest in the language. A similar approach in Hawaii has produced about 8,000 new speakers of Polynesian languages in the past few years. In California, ‘apprentice’ programmes have provided life support to several indigenous languages. Volunteer ‘apprentices’ pair up with one of the last living speakers of a Native American tongue to learn a traditional skill such as basket weaving, with instruction exclusively in the endangered language. After about 300 hours of training they are generally sufficiently fluent to transmit the language to the next generation. But Mufwene says that preventing a language dying out is not the same as giving it new life by using it every day. ‘Preserving a language is more like preserving fruits in a jar,’ he says.
However, preservation can bring a language back from the dead. There are examples of languages that have survived in written form and then been revived by later generations. But a written form is essential for this, so the mere possibility of revival has led many speakers of endangered languages to develop systems of writing where none existed before.
In some countries, many people choose to educate their children at home by themselves instead of sending them to school. Do you think the advantages outweigh the disadvantages?
Contrary to the conventional practice of sending their kids to school, more and more parents today choose to educate their children themselves at home. While this "home-education" model may be beneficial in some ways, home can never replace school as the major place for the education of kids.
Admittedly, home-education can bring about a bunch of benefits. With only one kid to teach, the parents will be able to know completely about the problems the kid has. In contrast, the teachers in school cannot spend that much time on the same kid because they have dozens of others to take care of. The natural result of this is that the home-educated kid may be given full attention to while his counterparts in school may well be ignored by his teachers. It is, therefore, very possible that a kid receiving home education excels a kid in school in terms of test scores.
Nevertheless, test score is not the only objective of education. As far as I understand, education is more about telling a kid to become a better person and the first step towards this aim is learning to get along with people. In this regard, home-education can do very little. However, when the kid is sent to school, he will learn how to work out a problem in cooperation with his peer classmates and in this process, he will understand the art of cooperation and leadership. A home-educated kid, however well he achieves in tests, is just like a flower in greenhouse which easily withers away when exposed to the rain outside.
Unlike many worried parents who prefer to educate their kids at home, I believe school is the best place for kids' education. While there may be some bad influences outside home, there are also many excellent people who could be role models for kids. Most important of all, it is just in not so pure a place as school that kids can learn to tell right from wrong, good from bad and eventually become physically and psychologically healthy when they grow up. (345 words)更多雅思考试真题回忆，请关注小站雅思频道。